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This project would not have been possible without the enthusiasm and assistance of a large number of individuals at various institutions. We are grateful for all their contributions. (Please let us know if we have omitted anyone who ought to be acknowledged.)

Financial Support

The HMD receives financial and logistical support from its two sponsoring institutions, the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (MPIDR). The UCB team is also supported by awards (R01 AG011552 and R01 AG040245) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and benefits from the supportive infrastructure of the NIA-funded Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging at UCB. Additional support for extending the HMD to cause-of-death data is provided by the Institut National d'Études Démographiques.

Since 2016, additional contributions have been received in support of the HMD from the Society of Actuaries-REX Pool Fund, the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, Hannover Re, SCOR, Reinsurance Group of America (RGA), the AXA Research Fund, Milliman, the UK Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, Club Vita, Munich Re, and the Dutch Royal Actuarial Association.

Local Support

The UCB team wishes to thank the faculty, staff, and students of the Department of Demography for their moral support and direct assistance with this project over the years. Thanks as well to the staff of the Institute of Business and Economic Research for their excellent administrative support and to the Berkeley Population Center for skilled assistance with our fundraising efforts.

The MPIDR team thanks all their researchers for valuable comments as well as the staff for assistance provided during recent years. Thanks are due to Jim Vaupel for his guidance and encouragement, and Dirk Vieregg for computer assistance. Thanks as well to our visitors for their expert assessment of our work.

Other Databases

For some populations, data on mortality at older ages came from or were complemented by the Kannisto-Thatcher Database (KTD) on Old Age Mortality. In addition, we often use data from the Human Lifetable Database (HLD) for checking our estimates.

Individual Contributors

Demographers and statisticians from around the world have contributed to this project by supplying data and/or expert advice for a particular country or area. In alphabetical listing by country/area, they include:


  • Cassandra Eaves, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • Mike Nunn, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • John O'Brien, Queensland Health, Australia
  • Adrian Smith, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • Len Smith, Australian National University, Australia


  • Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, MPIDR, Germany
  • Alexander Hanika, Statistik Austria
  • Anita Höfner, Statistik Austria
  • Helga de Wild, Statistik Austria


  • Isabelle Devos, Universiteit Gent (Ghent University)
  • Michel Poulain, Groupe d'étude de Démographie Appliquée (GéDAP), Université catholique de Louvain
  • Michel Willems, Statistics Belgium


  • Iordan Kalchev, National Institute of Statistics


  • Robert Bourbeau, Université de Montréal


  • Ivan Čipin, University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Dubravka Rogić - Hadžalić, Croatian Bureau of Statistics


  • Jitka Rychtarikova, Charles University Prague, Czechia


  • Otto Andersen, Danmarks Statistik
  • Dorthe Larsen, Danmarks Statistik
  • Ulla Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Jens Lauritsen, Syddansk Universitet (University of Southern Denmark)
  • Axel Skytthe, Syddansk Universitet (University of Southern Denmark)

England & Wales

  • Steve Smallwood, formerly Government Actuaries’ Department, currently at the Office of National Statistics (ONS)
  • Roger Thatcher, former Director, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys and Registrar General for England and Wales
  • Michaela Morris, Office for National Statistics
  • Oliver Wright, Office for National Statistics
  • Julie Gastrell, Office for National Statistics


  • Kalev Katus, Estonian Institute for Population Studies
  • Gleb Denissov, Statistics Estonia


  • Väinö Kannisto, former United Nations advisor on demographic and social statistics
  • Timo Nikander, Finland Statistics
  • Markus Rapo, Finland Statistics


  • Françoise Depoid, Institut national d'études démographiques (INED)
  • Jean-Claude Labat, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE)
  • France Meslé, INED
  • Jacques Vallin, NED
  • Lucile Richet-Mastain, INSEE


  • Walter Becker, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Hans-Peter Bosse, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Anja Conradi-Freundschuh, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Anita Depner, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Dieter Emmerling, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Jutta Gebhardt, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Christiane Hanson, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • R. Hopf-Engelk, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Lieselotte Kathe Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Beate Koehn, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Viola Kraemer, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Juergen Paffhausen, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Rolf Paletta, Statistical Office of Berlin
  • Gisela Papaja-Yadegari, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Bettina Sommer, Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Nicole Stampp Federal Statistical Office Germany, Wiesbaden
  • Monika Zornik, Statistical Office of Berlin


  • Michail Agorastakis, Laboratory of Demographic & Social Analyses, University of Thessaly

Hong Kong

  • Alston Chan, Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong
  • Karen S. L. Cheung, University of Hong Kong, Mindlink Research Centre
  • Jennifer Wong, Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong
  • Paul S.F. Yip, University of Hong Kong


  • Árpád Mészáros, Deputy Director of Department, Hungarian Central Statistical Office


  • Sigrún Helgadóttir, Statistics Iceland
  • Brynjólfur Sigurjónsson, Statistics Iceland
  • Guðjón Hauksson, Statistics Iceland


  • Pnina Zadka, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem
  • Jon Anson, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva
  • Naama Rotem, Demography and Census Department, Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel


  • Elisabetta Barbi, Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
  • Silvia Simeoni, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT)
  • Graziella Caselli, Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
  • Viviana Egidi, ISTAT
  • Luisa Frova, ISTAT
  • Claudia Iaccario, ISTAT
  • Martina Lo Conte, ISTAT
  • Silvia Simeoni, ISTAT


  • Makoto Atoh, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (NIPSSR)
  • Gretchen A. Condran, Temple University, USA
  • Shigemi Kono, Reitaku University
  • Shigesato Takahashi, NIPSSR
  • Tetsuya Tamura, Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Statistics and Information, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
  • Toru Suzuki, NIPSSR


  • Uldis Usackis, Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia


  • Vlada Stankuniene, Institute for Social Research


  • Jolanda van der Meer, Statistics Netherlands
  • Frans van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)
  • Ewa Tabeau, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The Hague
  • Sabrina Voorham, Statistics Netherlands
  • Frans Willekens, University of Groningen

New Zealand

  • Jit Cheung, Public Health Directorate of the Ministry of Health of New Zealand
  • Anne Howard, Statistics New Zealand
  • Michael Ryan, Statistics New Zealand

Northern Ireland

  • Jonathan Alexander and his colleagues, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency


  • Jens-Kristian Borgan, Statistik Sentralbyrå
  • Kirsten Enger Dybendal, Statistik Sentralbyrå
  • Svein Holm, Statistik Sentralbyrå
  • Anita M. Johansson, Statistik Sentralbyrå
  • Nico Keilman, Statistik Sentralbyrå
  • Elisabetta Vassenden, Statistik Sentralbyrå


  • Longina Rutkowska, Central Statistical Office of Poland
  • Agnieszka Znajewska, Central Statistical Office of Poland
  • Roman Popiński, Central Statistical Office of Poland
  • Lech Boleslawski, Central Statistical Office of Poland
  • Agnieszka Fihel, University of Warsaw, Poland


  • Edviges Coelho, Instituto Nacional de Estatística
  • Claudia Pina, Instituto Nacional de Estatística

Republic of Korea

  • Jeeeun Kim, Statistics Korea (KOSTAT)
  • Semi Kim, Statistics Korea (KOSTAT)
  • Sooyoung Kim, Statistics Korea (KOSTAT)


  • Sergei Zakharov, Center for Demography and Human Ecology

Slovak Republic

  • Ján Mészáros, Demographic Research Centre (INFOSTAT), Bratislava


  • Frank Dixon, the General Register Office for Scotland
  • Ian Brown, the General Register Office for Scotland
  • James Oeppen, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research

Slovak Republic

  • Ján Mészáros, Demographic Research Centre (INFOSTAT), Bratislava


  • Antonio Jesus Argüeso Jimenez, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica
  • Rosa Goméz Redondo, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
  • José Olmeda, UNED


  • Tomas Johansson, Statistics Sweden
  • Hans Lundström, National Central Bureau of Statistics


  • Stéphane Cotter, Swiss Federal Statistical Office
  • Sylvie Regli Greub, Swiss Federal Statistical Office
  • Corinne Di Loreto. Swiss Federal Statistical Office
  • Barbara Perrenoud, Swiss Federal Statistical Office
  • Dominik Ullmann, Swiss Federal Statistical Office
  • Philippe Wanner, Swiss Federal Statistical Office


  • Yi-yang Lee, Minister of Interior

United States

  • Robert Anderson, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
  • Thomas Dunn and the Systems, Programming, and Statistical Resource Branch of the Division of Vital Statistics at NCHS
  • Cynthia Owens, Duke University
  • Richard Suzman, National Institute for Aging
  • Researchers associated with a NIA grant (R01 AG18444) to Duke University have also supplied invaluable information about U.S. mortality at older ages.